They’re all 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22-year-olds.  Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). b. And the airline benefits, too. They can suffer concussions from milder collisions than would be required to concuss a collegiate or professional player. A hard-core utilitarian would say that outcomes are all that matter. â¢ Analysis of the language, concepts and methods of resoning in ethics.  Kathleen Bachynski, Youth Football is a Moral Abdication, The Atlantic, Feb. 1, 2020. Amber also plays an invaluable role in research. Utilitarianism also has trouble accounting for values like justice and individual rights. This would arguably produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Act utilitarianism makes the most ethical actions possible for the benefit of the people. A Defense of a utilitarian approach to business ethics, written for Business Ethics: A Philosophical Approach Edited by Werhane and Donaldson.  Justin Ehrlich et al., Mortality Risk Factors Among National Football League Players: An Analysis Using Player Career Data, F1000Research 2019, 8:2022. Given the obvious conflict of interest, the studies have been criticized on that ground. Being Your Best Self, Part 1: Moral Awareness, Being Your Best Self, Part 2: Moral Decision Making, Being Your Best Self, Part 3: Moral Intent, Being Your Best Self, Part 4: Moral Action, Ethical Leadership, Part 1: Perilous at the Top, Ethical Leadership, Part 2: Best Practices, Curbing Corruption: GlaxoSmithKline in China. Do you think that the NFL would make more safety-related changes if white players dominated rosters? Utilitarianism is a reason-based approach to determining right and wrong, but it has limitations.  Marc Siegel, Concussions and Football: New Helmets, New Tools, The Hill, Aug. 19, 2019.  Ken Belson, Judge Approves Deal in N.F.L.  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. One expert said “It really seems right now that if your [football] practices are highly controlled and reduced as much as possible and you only play four years of high school, your [CTE] risk is probably pretty low.”. See also Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020. Why or why not? As told in the movies, a significant scientific breakthrough occurred in 2002 when an African-American neuropathologist in Pittsburgh named Bennet Omalu (played by Will Smith in the 2015 movie “Concussion”) performed an autopsy on Hall of Fame center Mike Webster. Over time more evidence has indicated that even mild concussions suffered by high school football players can cause serious consequences.  Rachel Grashow et al., Association of Concussion Symptoms with Testosterone levels and Erectile Dysfunction in Former Professional US-Style Football Players, JAMA Neurology, 2019: DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2664. Some people accuse the media (and others) of hysterically overhyping the dangers of tackle football to the brain. In act utilitarianism any action is permissible given that it increases pleasure for the greatest number of people and a successful business does exactly this. Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Kagan suggests that such a procedure might be justified on the grounds that These ethics also can be challenging to maintain in our business culture, where a capitalistic economy often teaches people to focus on themselves at the expense of others. How do the tau clumps relate to the clinical syndrome—do the lesions fully explain the mood and memory problems? An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563. Acceptability. Which ones? Tom would do this because he is promoting his well being above everyone elseâs (QUT, 2011). However, the science in this area is truly not settled. However, if you choose to do something morally wrong—even if legal—then your happiness and that of your colleagues, will decrease. Would you prevent kids under 14 from playing tackle football? As such, it is the only moral framework that can justify military force or war. Explain. In economics, we can replace the terms âsatisfaction and pleasureâ with âvalue for money.â Economists use utility to measure pleasure or happiness and how it relates to the decisions we make. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, “Dodging Rumour and Insurgency: The Hunt for Burmese Amber Goes to the Heart of Myanmar’s Turbulent North,” Financial Post, Jan. 26, 2017. https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, “It is Time to Bring Global Attention to the Trade in Burmese Amber,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, American football is a rough and dangerous game.  Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? In deciding whether it is ethical for you to buy amber from Myanmar, do you need to guard against the self-serving bias unduly affecting your decision? The author of this theory suggests that firm must be valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable and perfectly non sustainable. One suggested solution to the concussion problem is to outlaw helmets on the theory that players will be forced to reduce headfirst collisions and other trauma-causing actions. Do you think these critiques are counterbalanced by the fact that the riches that are often lavished upon NFL players go disproportionately to African-Americans as well? The field is surprisingly new. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation.  David Gee, Doubt is Their Product: How Industry’s Assault on science Threatens Your Health, Journal of Public Health Policy, 29(4): 474-479 (2008). Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). While some researchers and universities feel as though they should refrain from making such amber purchases, their failure to participate enables many private collectors to remove collections from the public or to charge researchers an exorbitant fee for access. One of the oldest amber deposits in the world, dating back 100 million years, is located in the Northern region of Myanmar. Part of the reason is that “[m]ost of the time when a player has a concussion, standard medical imaging techniques do not show damage.” No “gold standard” for diagnosing concussions currently exists. In utilitarian ethics, there are no shades of gray—either something is wrong or it is right. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. A study of 3,904 Wisconsin men found no significant harmful association between playing football in high school and cognitive impairment or depression later in life. Over two regular seasons (2012-2014), NFL players sustained 4,384 injuries, including 301 concussions.  Bryan R. Cobb et al., Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: Elementary School Ages 9-12 Years and the Effect of Practice Structure, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 41: 2463-2473 (2013). Utilitarianism is a moral theory, which works as a form of consequentialism helps individuals to assess whether an action is good or bad. As a part of general and practical ethics, business ethics focuses on moral or ethical principles and issues that occur in the business environment, providing judgments as â¦  Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths..  Matt Ventresca & Mary G. McDonald, Forces of Impact: Critically Examining Sport’s “Concussion Crisis,” in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Ventresca & McDonald, eds., 2019). Social justice is a concept holding that all people should have equal access to wealth, health, well-being, privileges, and opportunity. So, we just need to kind of put it in context.”. Most companies have a formal or informal code of ethics, which is shaped by their corporate culture, values, and regional laws. Five million cribs had been sold. Discussion Questions on High Schools & Colleges, Discussion Questions on Youth Leagues (Under 14).  Anthony E. Prior, The Slave Side of Sunday (2006). Copyright © 2020 Ethics Unwrapped - McCombs School of Business – The University of Texas at Austin, 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from, https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/08/amber-fossil-supply-chain-has-dark-human-cost/594601/, https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(19)31097-8.pdf, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/07/fossil-bird-in-amber-has-unusually-long-toes/, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232280-600-blood-amber-the-exquisite-trove-of-fossils-fuelling-war-in-myanmar/, https://dc.law.utah.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=ulr, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/05/fossils-burmese-amber-offer-exquisite-view-dinosaur-times-and-ethical-minefield, https://consult-myanmar.com/2018/07/11/myanmars-new-gold-mine-is-dinosaur-amber/, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216311939?via%3Dihub, https://business.financialpost.com/commodities/mining/dodging-rumour-and-insurgency-the-hunt-for-burmese-amber-goes-to-the-heart-of-myanmars-turbulent-north, https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232283-300-it-is-time-to-bring-global-attention-to-the-trade-in-burmese-amber/, https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html, https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921, https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds, https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/15/health/concussion-high-school-sports-study/index.html, https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html, https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full, https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019, https://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explained-how-does-it-work/, https://slate.com/culture/2015/12/the-truth-about-will-smiths-concussion-and-bennet-omalu.html, https://www.healthnewsreview.org/2018/01/sports-desks-drop-the-ball-on-big-concussion-story/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harm_principle, https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/. Alan Schwarz et al., N.F.L.’s Flawed Concussion Research and Ties to Tobacco Industry, New York Times, March 24, 2016. " Utilitarianism and business ethics, " in R. E. Frederick, eds, A Companion to Business Ethics.  Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Association between Recurrent Concussion and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment in Retired Professional Football Players, Neurosurgery 57(4): 719-726 (2005). This would arguably produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Companies also must endeavor to keep their promises and put ethics at least on par with profits.  Des Bieler, Oklahoma State’s Mike Gundy Says His Team Needs to Play for Benefit of State Economy,” Washington Post, April 7, 2020, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/. Ethics.  Mariana Brussoni et al., Risky Play and Children’s Safety: Balancing Priorities for Optimal Child Development, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9:3134-3148 (2012). feeling worried and guilty and this would ease his mind. A limitation of utilitarianism is that it tends to create a black-and-white construct of morality. After a single season, college football players had less midbrain white matter than they had started with. Utilitarian? Utilitarian theory and business ethics Human approach towards anticipation for maximizing of pleasure and elimination of suffering and pain brings about the fundamentals established in the realm of moral philosophies that date back to a distant past (Robertson & Walter, 2007). If you took a deontological approach, what would your reasoning look like? Are the answers different for NFL players, college players, high school players, and under-14 players?  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. , The NFL has taken other concrete steps to respond to the controversy. Although the appropriate amount of regulation and laws will always be a subject of debate, political and economic policies are geared primarily toward fostering as much well-being for as many people as possible, or at least they should be. Is it always a consideration that buyers should take into account?  Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014; Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). Therefore, there is no correct way to treat employees. Support your position with data and facts. Empirical research supports the notion that allowing children to engage in dangerous forms of play is key to their optimal development. In some cases, amber contains inclusions, such as insects, whole or parts of animals, and plants that are trapped and preserved.  Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain?  Michael W. Collins et al., Adolescent Sports Concussion, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 19(2): 247-269 (2008); Mark R. Lovell et al., Recover from Mild Concussion in High School Athletes, Journal of Neurosurgery, 98(2): 296-301 (2003). Applying Utilitarianism in Business.  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016 (quoting CBS News quoting, in turn, Dr. John York). A public health professor has said that letting pre-teens play tackle football is “an abdication of moral responsibility for children’s welfare.”. 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