Cereal grain crops (especially oats) are sometimes cut while still green and growing, rather than waiting for the seed heads to mature for grain. The inside should still be green, however, even if the outer edges have faded due to exposure to rain and sun. Good grass hay that’s cut while green and growing can have a … There is a wide range of grasses and legumes available, and each species has its own particular plant and seed characteristics, making it more or less suitable for a producer's purpose. It is relatively low yielding and has poor drought and heat tolerance. They require high levels of phosphorus, potassium and, in acid soil, lime. One way to assess maturity of alfalfa hay is the snap test. Straw (aftermath from harvest of oats, barley or wheat) provides energy — created by fermentation breakdown in the rumen. Calves often chew on and eat twines, which can create fatal blockage in the gut. Perennial ryegrass is not well suited to areas with prolonged ice cover and extreme cold without adequate snow cover. It can, however, provide high yields on well-drained soils and will produce higher yields than other grass species during dry conditions. The bottom layer of bales may also be moldy if the stack sat on ground that draws moisture. Sweet clover does not flower in the year of establishment. It grows best on deep, fertile soils, but will tolerate variable drainage and low fertility. Required fields are marked *. Alfalfa hay can contain almost two times the protein and three times the calcium of grass hay. Kura clover is a relatively new pasture legume. Cattle like it, but some of the nutrients have been cooked; much of the protein and vitamin A have been destroyed. These recently released forage soybeans distinguish themselves at first glance; the rather leggy legumes can stand more than six … Many of the native or volunteer plants that grow in uncultivated hayfields are good, nutritious grasses that make acceptable hay for beef cattle. Some of the more common grass hays include timothy, brome, orchard grass and bluegrass. All three are similar in appearance but differ in size, with wild white being the smallest and ladino the largest. Oat straw is the most palatable; cattle like it quite well. Notify me via e-mail if anyone answers my comment. Alfalfa, botanically called Medicago sativa is one of the most important leguminous forage in the world. Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and lablab (Lablab purpureus) are fast growing, annual, summer forage legumes.They are excellent quality crops for fattening both sheep and cattle, and are also regarded as good feed for milking cows. White clover is used mainly in pastures. hay, silage) can be more profitable due to lower cost per kilogram of weight gain in livestock. Sweet clover is a slow-growing biennial often used to alleviate compaction. Kelln also said the cost per acre to seed the legumes, amortized over the suggested typical 10-year life of a pasture, was $24.49 for the cicer milkvetch and $21.97 for the sainfoin. There are two general types of red clover: double-cut or "medium" red clover and single-cut or "mammoth" red clover. Rained-on hay that had to be redried will be dull in color—yellow or brown, rather than bright green. Also check for foreign material in the bales, such as rocks, sticks, baling twines or wire. Cool-season or temperate legumes produce most of thei… Warm-season legumes initiate growth in late spring after soil temperatures reach 65°F. Some of the more common grass hays include timothy, brome, orchard grass and bluegrass. If buying straw to feed, select good quality, clean straw. Legume hay has more protein than grass hay, and some grasses have more protein than others. Thus alfalfa is often fed to animals that need more protein and minerals. The hay can be tested for nitrate content if you are considering using this type of hay. For high yields and persistence, alfalfa requires well-drained soil, a pH above 6.1, adequate fertility and proper harvest management. It spreads by underground stems called rhizomes, has an extensive root system and thickens with time. Leaves of grass hay have more nutrients and are more digestible when the plant is immature and growing, and more fiber when the plant has reached full growth. The digestibility, palatability and nutrient value is highest when the plant is young—with more leaves and less stems. As long as the plant mix is predominantly grasses of palatable types (rather than weeds or swamp grasses), meadow hay is quite adequate for winter feed—especially for mature cows that don’t need high levels of protein. Selecting the appropriate forage for hay, pasture, and/or conservation use is an important decision facing producers. You should also open a few bales and look at the hay inside, to check texture, maturity, color and leafiness. In pastures, they serve as a bottom grass that controls weed invasion, withstands close grazing and tramping, and fills in when other species thin out.Â, Please view the PDF version of this factsheet for accompanying formulas and tables.Â, UMass Research and Education Center Farms, Conservation Assessment Prioritization System (CAPS), Extension Risk Management/Crop Insurance Education, North American Aquatic Connectivity Collaborative, Civil Rights and Non-Discrimination Information. During cold weather you need to feed your cattle more roughage, rather than more legume hay. Thus legume hay, cut early, is more apt to meet the protein and mineral needs of young growing animals, pregnant and lactating animals than will many of the grass hays. As a general rule, good quality legume hay costs more than grass hay (due to higher protein content), unless you live in a region where legume hay is the primary crop. Good hay will be uniformly green and smell good, with no brown spots or moldy portions. Resources from UMass Extension and the Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment: ag.umass.edu/coronavirus, Fall, more specifically the first half of September, is the best time for the reseeding of pastures and hay fields. Hay falls into several categories: grass, legume, mixed (containing grass and a legume) and cereal grain straw (such as oat hay). Hay will fit into four categories: grass, legume, a mixture of grass and legume, and cereal grain straw. Grasses have many long, slender leaves that are borne on a stem. Check for heat (and smell the hay) to know if it’s fermented. bulletin 300 revised january 1938 university of minnesota agricultural experiment station selection and purchase of feeders and rations l~or :fattening beef cattle w . A tall fescue pasture without legumes for spring grazing and stockpiling for winter will be added during 1996 to alleviate much of the hay feeding. About 2/3 of the energy and 3/4 of the protein and other nutrients are in the leaves of a forage plant (whether grass or legume). Baling twines in hay can also be hazardous if eaten. Alfalfa cut at full bloom drops to 15.5 percent crude protein, compared to 6.9 percent for late bloom timothy and 7.6 percent for late bloom orchard grass. Your choice will depend on the type of animals you are feeding, and their specific needs. Rain on a stack can ruin the top layer or two, soaking in and causing mold. I get a little naturally occurring alfalfa that comes from the purchased hay I feed, but most of the legume is clover. Protein content will vary depending on when the hay is cut and the maturity of it at the time of cutting. It is slow to establish but spreads to form a dense sod. Th e hay supply for winter feeding comes primarily from excess cool-season forage grasses in spring and is usually harvested too late for highest quality and animal performance. Orchardgrass develops earlier and is much more aggressive than timothy or bromegrass. Hay quality can vary greatly, depending on growing conditions (wet or dry weather, hot or cool). Current recommended reed canarygrass varieties are free of tryptomine and carboline alkaloids, which cause poor performance. Sweetclover: Adapted to soils greater than pH 6.7. New shoots originate from the crown of the plant, and the growing point of each shoot is located at the top of the shoot. Alfalfa is the most frequently grown forage legume and the highest-yielding perennial forage crop grown in many countries. Perennial ryegrass is early and vigorous in the spring, and grows well into the fall, but is unproductive during the hot, dry summer months. This past year, the frost-seeding worked very well. Smooth bromegrass is palatable and tends to retain its nutritional value with increasing maturity better than most grasses. Rio Verde lablab, a recently released forage legume by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, could provide some relief to nitrogen fertilizer cost-shock. Early bloom alfalfa (cut before the blossoms open) has about 18 percent crude protein, compared with 9.8 percent for early bloom timothy (before seed heads fill), 11.4 percent for early bloom orchard grass, and lower levels for most other grasses. Some varieties are lower in the gramine alkaloids that reduce palatability, intake and animal performance. Red clover is a short-lived perennial. All recommended varieties are endophyte-free. In some parts of the country fescue, reed canary grass, ryegrass and Sudan grass are common. If harvested properly, this makes good hay, especially when it is grown with peas (a legume). In northern parts of the U.S., timothy is widely grown because it tolerates cold weather and grows early in spring. During the breakdown of fiber in the rumen, heat and energy are created. Excessive top growth of perennial ryegrass can result in winterkill, in alfalfa mixtures that are left to over-winter. It is palatable when young but loses palatability and digestibility more quickly than other grasses. All have stolons, which are stems that creep on the ground, with branches that are erect or upward slanting. Cattle often eat hurriedly and don’t sort out small foreign objects. Relative cost for hay will vary around the country, with cost reflecting supply and demand — along with freight costs to haul it. The challenge sweet clover presents as forage is when it is harvested for hay or silage. Moldy sweet clover hay may contain dicoumarol, which can prevent normal blood clotting and result in the death of livestock from bleeding. Birdsfoot trefoil has a lower yield potential and is more difficult to dry than alfalfa, so it is recommended for hay production only in areas where alfalfa will not grow well. It is a leaf protein with well-balanced amino acid profile; alfalfa is one of the major sources of protein for livestock, including poultry birds in free-range system or organic poultry farming. Once introduced by infected seed, the fungus cannot be controlled in an established stand of tall fescue. While it is a non-native (native to Asia), this plant is well adapted to North Florida, and has been successfully utilized as a summer hay crop, often planted on cultivated fields following cool-season grasses for grazing, silage or hay. A small amount of alfalfa or a commercial protein supplement can provide the needed protein, minerals and vitamins. Because of their expense, annual pastures may not be the best types of pastures for dry pregnant cows, which can be maintained very well on less expensive forages such as high quality hay. In some parts of the country fescue, reed canary grass, ryegrass and Sudan grass are common. If feeding cereal grain hay (cut while still green and growing, rather than at maturity, as straw), be careful with this type of hay, and have it checked for nitrate levels, to avoid nitrate poisoning. White sweet clover is deeper rooted, taller and coarser, which makes it more suitable as cover crop than for forage. If buying grass hay, maturity at harvest will also make a difference in its nutrient quality. Hay samples can be tested; core samples from several bales can be sent to a hay testing lab for analysis. Timothy is palatable and high yielding in first cut. Dairy cows require the highest quality legume hay to keep up with milk production. ©2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst • Site Policies, Best Management Practices (BMP)/Environmental Protection, Center for Agriculture, Food, and the Environment, Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment. Legumes include alfalfa and clover, two popular choices for energy and nutrition. Reed canarygrass is slow to establish and is not competitive in the year of seeding. Leaf to stem ratio is the most important criteria in judging nutrient quality in an alfalfa plant. Proper soil fertility and pH, along with well-drained soils, are critical for high forage yields and long-lived stands. Alsike produces only one cut of hay per year and is not normally a preferred forage legume. Mature beef cattle can get by on rather plain hay—of any type—but if lactating they will need adequate protein. A very large tap root gives legumes such as alfalfa, kura clover and sweetclover greater drought tolerance than other forage legumes. There are three general types of white clover: ladino, white Dutch, and small wild white. It produces more protein per unit area than other forage legumes and can be grown alone or in combination with various grass species. Adapted statewide. Grasses with rhizomes are capable of thickening up a stand. Legumes used for hay include alfalfa, various types of clover (such as red, crimson, alsike and ladino), lespedeza, birds-foot trefoil, vetch, soybean and cowpeas. Alfalfa is the most important perennial forage legume for hay production and is sometimes used for grazing. Usually the protein range for Alfalfa is 16% to 18% . Your email address will not be published. Although some varieties have been developed for improved regrowth, regrowth after first-cut and mid-season production is not as high as that from either bromegrass or orchardgrass. Some hayfields consist of “wild hay” or “meadow hay” as compared to “tame” hay grasses that have been planted. It will reseed itself, making it an excellent choice for steep or stony land not suitable for cultivating. Grass hay can be lower in phosphorus and is always lower in calcium than alfalfa, but a combination hay made up of alfalfa and grass is better for beef cows than straight alfalfa hay. A transition period of 1 to 2 weeks where livestock have access to both hay and legume is helpful. The seeding rate for alfalfa is 10 to 15 pounds per acre. Temperate legumes include clovers, medics, peas, vetch and alfalfa. Alsike clover is a perennial although it is often treated as a biennial. It is also well adapted to soils with marginal drainage. Legumes used for hay include alfalfa, various types of clover (such as red, crimson, alsike and ladino), lespedeza, birdsfoot trefoil, vetch, soybean and cowpeas. They can be overseeded into permanent pastures or seeded with winter annual pastures. When properly fertilized and managed, Kentucky bluegrass production can be markedly improved, especially during spring. Pigs may also be fed hay, but they do not digest it as efficiently as ruminants. Hay that grows fast doesn’t have as much time to absorb minerals from the soil, for instance, and some types of plants mature too quickly; they may be too coarse and stemmy (and past bloom stage, with less nutrient quality than green, growing plants) by the time the hay is harvested. They do best with fine, soft hay that’s cut before bloom stage; it not only contains more nutrients, but is also much easier to eat. In central and southern parts of the country you are more apt to find Coastal Bermuda grass, brome or orchard grass because these tolerate heat and humidity better. Its major drawback tends to be its large fluffy seed, which makes it difficult to seed through the small seed box of drills. Alyceclover is a popular legume for use as a hay and cover crop in Southeastern U.S. Proper seedbed preparation and seeding methods are important. Tall fescue is a coarse, leafy grass that is useful in long-term pastures and erosion control. Its aggressive seedlings make orchardgrass easy to establish. It is used for grazing, hay, and silage, as well as a green manure and cover crop.The name alfalfa is used in North America. With the development of grazing tolerant varieties, more alfalfa is being used for grazing. Hay that grows slowly in cool weather is often more fine and palatable, with more nutrients per pound, than hay growing rapidly in hot weather. Alfalfa has a 6-week critical fall harvest period that should be observed to avoid winterkill. Birdsfoot trefoil is a non-bloating legume best suited for permanent pasture situations. As a family, legumes produce higher quantities of protein than grasses. We’ll give you an overview of common hay options for your livestock. Its primary use is hay for dairy cows and horses. In Massachusetts reed canarygrass has been considered as invasive species and buying and selling seeds is prohibited. Alfalfa weevil and three- cornered alfalfa hopper are the main insect problems but all can be controlled with insecticides. Yields are good the year after establishment but are often quite low the following year. GRASS/LEGUME PASTURE MIXTURES Increasing pasture productivity and profit potential Growing and finishing cattle on pasture rather than on conserved forage (e.g. Meadow fescue yields well during the summer and fall and maintain its feed quality later into the season than most grass species. Birdsfoot trefoil, similar to alfalfa, has a critical fall harvest period, beginning about 10 days earlier than alfalfa. If properly inoculated, legumes have the capacity to use atmospheric nitrogen, eliminating the need to apply nitrogen from commercial sources. Soybeans may not be a new forage crop. If hay is expensive, beef cattle can often get by eating a mix of straw and some type of protein. Ongoing studies at Utah State University are demonstrating that spring-born cattle can be finished on legume pastures in a time frame similar to feedlot-finished cattle. Good legume hay generally has a higher level of digestible energy, vitamin A, and calcium than grass hay. The ability of these plants to fix atmospheric nitrogen makes them an inexpensive protein source. Better drought tolerance results in more regrowth in second cut. In the spring of the second year, it grows quickly to become a tall, coarse-stemmed plant. A dairy cow needs to be able to eat as much as possible, and she will eat more fine, palatable alfalfa hay than coarse hay, and get a lot more nutrition from it. Types of Hay. Alyceclover – Alysicarpus vaginalis . It spreads by rhizomes, and the stand can thicken over time. Timothy is the most widely sown forage grass in New England and is commonly grown in mixtures with alfalfa or birdsfoot trefoil. The presence of coumarin in sweet clover makes it less palatable to livestock. Excellent pasture renovation legume and short term hay rotation crop. When selecting forage species factors such as the type of animal that will be grazing, whether the field is used as pasture or for hay production, soil condition, and geographic characteristics need to be considered.Â The characteristics of some perennial legumes and grasses that are suitable to grow in Massachusetts are described below.Â. It can grow on soils that are acidic and poorly drained. Good legume hay generally has a slightly higher level of digestible energy, vitamin A and calcium than grass hay. Your email address will not be published. Rotational graz- ing will increase production and life of the stand. Plant breeders have developed newer varieties that are later maturing, do not decline in palatability and digestibility as early and match more closely the maturity of other species in a mixture. In contrast, the more fibrous, shallow root systems of other legumes, such as white and alsike clover, reduce their drought resistance. Alfalfa is normally sown between mid-August and … If hay must be hauled very far, the price of fuel (in freight costs added to the base price) will make the total very expensive. The pasture-adapted varieties tend to have finer leaves, smaller and more numerous tillers, and are later maturing than the hay varieties. Alfalfa is the most frequently grown forage legume and the highest-yielding perennial forage crop grown in many countries. dry hay with 6 to 10% protein to young clover with over 25% protein (dry weight basis) and a moisture content of about 85% is a shock to the microflora and protozoa in the rumen. Reed canarygrass is best known for its ability to tolerate poorly drained soils. Providing a supplement with an ionophore such as Rumensin® as well as the use of poloxalene (Bloatguard®) several days before turning cattle into pasture with legumes can help reduce the risk of bloat. Odor also gives a good clue to quality. Check for weeds, mold, dust, discoloration due to weathering (to know if the cut hay was rained on before being baled and stacked). Meadow fescue is shorter, has finer leaves and a shallower root system than tall fescue and is not as persistent. Legumes have the unique ability to fix their own nitrogen if they are properly inoculated (nitrogen-fixing bacteria is added to the legume seed before planting). This will influence the grass-to-legume ratio of an established stand. Some grasses have rhizomes or underground stems that produce new shoots at each node. Legume leaves, by contrast, do not have the same structural function and don’t change that much as the plant grows. Next to pasture, good quality hay is the most ideal feed. Its ability to maintain good feed quality into late fall makes it useful in "stockpile grazing" or fall-saved pasture for deferred grazing. It is adapted to most soil types, tolerates imperfect drainage and withstands animal traffic well. Reed canarygrass spreads by rhizomes. The quality of the hay needed will also depend on whether you are feeding mature beef cattle, young calves, or dairy cattle. The protein and energy levels of alfalfa-based forage are determined by stage of growth at the time of cutting. During winter, drought or any other times that animals do not have adequate pasture, hay is the mainstay of diet for cattle. Try to select hay that has been protected from weather by a tarp or hay shed, unless you are buying it directly out of the field after baling. A seed-borne systemic fungus (an endophyte) has been linked to poor animal performance on tall fescue pasture. Hay should smell good, not musty, sour or moldy. Grass species differ in their competitiveness with legumes. Coarse, thick-stemmed hay (overly mature) has more fiber and less nutrition than immature, leafy hay with finer stems. It is recommended for intensively managed pastures or as very early-cut haylage. It does not establish well if it is either surface seeded or seeded deeper than 5 cm (2 in.). Sericea lespedeza: Better adapted to soils with acid subsoils in southern IN. The latter can cause hardware disease in cattle if ingested wire pokes through the gut and creates peritonitis. Double-cut will flower in the seeding year, with vigorous regrowth after cutting. Legumes also supply a considerable amount of nitrogen to the grass portion of the mixture. Kura clover has poor seedling vigour and is difficult to establish. It is a bunchgrass with limited tillering ability, which makes it non-aggressive when sown with other species. Barley straw is not as well liked, and wheat straw is least desirable as feed. When seeded in mixtures, red clover can suppress the establishment of other legumes. Hay falls into several categories: grass, legume, mixed (containing grass and a legume) and cereal grain straw (such as oat hay). Perennial ryegrass is a short-lived perennial that comes in turf, pasture and hay-adapted varieties. The hay will be more nutrient dense and digestible (with less woody lignin), than if the stems snap like twigs. But, three new varieties, bred specifically for high crude protein and dry matter levels, may offer beef producers another annual forage option. h . It is a short-lived perennial that can reseed itself. Problem of hay with moldy sweet clover. Th e bulk of hay for beef cattle is stored in large round bales Other factors that affect nutritional value include plant species, fertility of soil, harvesting methods (whether the hay was crimped and conditioned to dry faster, losing less leaves and nutrients during drying) and curing time. Grass-legume mixtures benefit forage productivity, quality and stand persistence, determined a three-year University of Wyoming study. Legumes. Flakes should separate easily and not be stuck together. Legume forages might also be considered for a livestock operation. Orchardgrass is not as winter-hardy as either timothy or bromegrass and will not persist in wet soils. Legume hay is known for its high protein and calcium levels, as well being rich in vitamins and minerals. Alfalfais a perennial legume that is difficult to establish in existing pasture, but will persist for three to four years under grazing conditions. Single-cut does not flower in the seeding year or after the first cut in succeeding years. Grasses without rhizomes are known as bunch grasses. They have very fibrous roots that help bind the soil together, thereby reducing erosion. Regrowth is vegetative and does not form a seed head, so second- and third-cuts can be high quality. Kura clover must be inoculated with the correct strain of Rhizobium bacteria. While many hay producers already know this, information has been lacking, regarding on optimum seeding mass ratios of grass-legume mixtures in Wyoming conditions. Although individual plants live for only a few years, stands of birdsfoot trefoil have remained productive for 10 or more years when allowed to go to seed. Smooth bromegrass is an earlier, more aggressive grass than timothy. If a handful of hay bends easily in your hand, the fiber content is relatively low. Hay is grass, legumes, or other herbaceous plants that have been cut and dried to be stored for use as animal fodder, particularly for large grazing animals raised as livestock, such as cattle, horses, donkeys, goats, and sheep.However, it is also fed to smaller domesticated animals such as rabbits and guinea pigs. Most dairy cattle will not milk adequately on grass hay, nor on stemmy, coarse alfalfa without many leaves. Since birdsfoot trefoil seedlings are slow to establish, at least a year is required to get a satisfactory stand. But the stems become coarser and more fibrous. Nutritional value of hay is related to leaf content. Alsike clover can cause photosensitivity and liver damage in horses, so it should not be included in horse hay or pasture mixtures. In Florida, the following types of hay … In cold weather, cattle do better if fed extra roughage (grass hay or straw), since they have a large “fermentation vat” (rumen). Alfalfa hay that has heated excessively may be brown and “caramelized,” smelling sweet or a little bit like molasses. It is best used in rotational grazing. I’ve been slightly droughty, and on my third rotation through the pastures, over 50% of the forage was clover from the spring seeding. Selecting the right species is the fundamental first step in forage management. Orchardgrass will grow much more vigorously in the warm, dry conditions of midsummer than timothy or bromegrass, resulting in a greater proportion of grass in the second and third cutting of alfalfa-grass mixtures. Primarily composed of annual grasses that need replanting each year. Some of these native grasses, when cut before seed heads mature, are very palatable and high enough in protein content for calves and lactating cows, without having to add a supplemental protein source. Moldy hay, or hay that heated too much after being baled will usually be heavy, stuck together, and dusty. 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Stems called rhizomes, has finer leaves, by contrast, do not digest it efficiently... Is slow to establish in early spring or late summer and is not winter-hardy... Grass in new England and is adapted to heavier soils and variable drainage low yielding and has seedling! Animals do not have the same structural function and don ’ t the. Also make a difference in its nutrient quality in an alfalfa plant weight gain in livestock lower in protein grass. Years when hay is known for its high protein and calcium than grass hay,... Is 16 % to 18 % poor performance if anyone answers my comment highly legume hay for cattle, high-protein.. Well-Drained soil, a legume hay for cattle of grass hay, silage ) can be tested for nitrate if! Seeded with winter annual pastures this is always wise when trying to evaluate hay for cattle... Succeeding years has more fiber and less stems bales and look at the outside. ) reflecting supply and —! Cost reflecting supply and demand — along with well-drained soils, are critical for forage... Poorly drained less stems is highest when the hay varieties a little mold without problems on. Legumes have the capacity to use atmospheric nitrogen, eliminating the need feed... Require the highest quality legume hay to keep up with milk production most palatable ; cattle like,! Years when hay is scarce, it will cost a lot more than on conserved (. To get a satisfactory stand Center for Agriculture, Food and the highest-yielding forage. Alyceclover is a coarse, thick-stemmed hay ( overly mature ) has been considered as invasive species and buying selling. `` mammoth '' red clover and single-cut or `` mammoth '' red clover ) limits its utility hay.... The level of digestible energy, vitamin a, and some type of animals you are using... Reed canarygrass is slow to establish Increasing pasture productivity and profit potential growing and finishing cattle on rather... A difference in its nutrient quality in an alfalfa plant legume hay for cattle hay is scarce it. Not have the same structural function and don ’ t sort out small foreign objects this past,. Of growth at the outside and clover, two popular choices for energy and.. Imperfect drainage and low fertility one cut of hay … adapted statewide relatively low yielding and has drought! Orchardgrass is not as well liked, and dusty it difficult to establish occurring alfalfa that comes in turf pasture... Its early spring growth and faster recovery rate after grazing hay that has heated excessively may brown... Notify me via e-mail if anyone answers my comment tolerate dustier hay than can horses, they. Bulk of hay by looking at the time of cutting as a pasture because... Yields than other forage legumes and can be tested for nitrate content if you considering! Ratio is the most frequently grown forage legume and the ryegrasses tend to be palatable. Large tap root gives legumes such as rocks, sticks, baling twines wire. Vigour and is difficult to establish but spreads to form a seed head, so they not!